The Pocketbook of Lean Visuals
1. For Improving Productivity and Safety in Your Lean Facility L E A N V I S U A L S LEANVISUALS
15. 28 29 24. Dance charts Post standard work fl ow diagrams or “dance charts” in the work area to help employees remember the proper task sequence based on the number of people assigned to the cell. Work Instruction Visuals
18. 34 35 29. Lube points Mark lubrication points with a label that identifi es the proper grease quantity and frequency. To ensure that the correct lubricant is used, consider also color coding the lube point label to match the label on the appropriate grease gun. Equipment Care Visuals (TPM)
25. 48 49 41. Electrical equipment All electrical equipment should also be marked with both shock and arc fl ash hazard warnings, as required by NFPA70E and the National Electric Code. Facility and Process Visuals
3. 4 5 1. Vehicle traffic lanes and pedestrian walkways In a busy plant, controlling the fl ow of people and vehicles is an important safety concern. Marking your permanent aisles and passageways is not just a good practice - it is an OSHA requirement (see OSHA CFR 1910.22). 2. Traffic intersections In addition to marking lanes, use precautionary signals or fl oor signs at intersections where people and vehicle traffi c unavoidably meet.
4. 6 7 3. Storage locations (use border lines & labels) Border lines (e.g. striping or border marking tapes) delineate the space allocated and make it easy to identify when something is missing. But by themselves, they can’t ensure that the correct items will be returned to their proper place. That’s why you also need labels: a label for the border area and one for the object itself (see #4). What’s missing? But which cart? That’s the one. Order restored! Now it’s clear! 4. Label items as well as borders Any items stored should also have a label on the item itself that provides information about its storage location. This label can be cross-referenced with the label on the storage location border, as mentioned in #3.
5. 8 9 5. “Keep clear” areas Brady recommends using striped tape to mark areas that need to be kept clear. The stripes demand attention and help enforce compliance. Diagonal lines inside the border can also be included for additional visual impact. 6. “ In use” and “out of use” storage locations Do you have an item that is stored in one place while it’s being used, and another when it’s not in use? Differentiate the two using different tape or label colors.
7. 12 13 9. Frequently re-organized storage areas Change is one of the only constants in lean. If you have storage areas that are regularly re-organized or re-arranged, use magnets or labels with repositionable adhesive. 10. Front and back of fl ow racks Always mark the front of a fl ow rack, as this helps reduce picking errors by the person using the parts. It’s also important to mark the back of a fl ow rack to ensure that material handlers put parts in the right place when replenishing stock.
8. 14 15 12. Color coded storage visuals Do your tools have the habit of “walking off” to other departments? Color code your tool board markings by department or work area; it’s easy to tell when the tool from one area gets taken to another area. 11. Tool shadows Use shadow board tool tape to create a shadow of your tool on your toolboard. Above each tool shadow, use a label to show the name or ID number of the tool. To expedite work and reduce motion, you can also store tools right next to machines or equipment using hooks, holders and magnets.
9. 16 17 14. Remove cabinet doors Consider removing your cabinet doors or replacing them with open shelving to make the contents more visible. This encourages employees to keep cabinets organized. Some companies even put angled “roofs” on cabinets to ensure that items are not inappropriately stored on top. 13. Inside and outside of drawers, cabinets and toolboxes All drawers, cabinets, toolboxes, and other organizers should be marked on the outside to clearly indicate what is contained within. Also mark the inside of your storage compartments to clearly identify where each item is properly stored. Use foam cutouts or anti-slip mats to prevent the items from rolling around and shifting in the drawers.
10. 18 19 16. 5S supplies checkout board 5S often involves equipment that is shared between departments or work areas (e.g. cameras, label printers, etc.). You may fi nd it benefi cial to have a sign-out board for 5S supplies; it controls usage and ensures that all supplies can be quickly located when they are needed. 15. Rejects or materials on hold for QA Mark parts and products that need to be inspected, or that have been inspected and have been rejected as defective. Brady recommends using the color orange to indicate that inspection is needed before use; red can be used to indicate if the product has been rejected.
11. 20 21 17. Maximum level indicators Visuals can reinforce stock limits and highlight overstock situations. It can help you avoid unnecessarily high inventory levels, which tie up capital that could be used more effi ciently elsewhere. Production & Inventory Control Visuals Also called material pull or kanban visuals
17. 32 33 28. One point labels One-point lessons are typically depicted as standard letter size documents. However, they are even more effective when you condense the critical information onto a label or set of labels. Then you can post the information right at the point of need – exactly where your employees can benefi t from it. 27. One point lessons If employees are struggling to remember one step in a procedure, consider creating a “one point” or “single point” lesson. A one point lesson is different from a typical procedure in that it focuses on one critical point.
19. 36 37 31. Drive tension guides Drive tension guides help operators inspect for proper tension on the drive system. Using red and green color blocks, these visuals indicate when a chain or belt needs to be tightened or replaced. 30. Oil level indicators Place a green and red striped label behind the oil sight tube to help operators quickly detect when oil levels are too high or too low. The optical properties of the oil cause the stripes to enlarge and defl ect downward, making it easy to tell whether the amount of oil falls in the green “good-to-go” range.
20. 38 39 33. Normal / safe state visuals Visuals can indicate whether valves and air dumps are normally closed or open. These visuals help prevent accidents when employees are putting equipment into a safe working condition (or zero energy state). 32. Gauge labels Adding a simple gauge label enables any employee to easily detect abnormalities at a glance and at a distance. Without the label, only a trained inspector would know if the temperature or pressure setting is correct.
21. 40 41 35. Replacement part visuals Roughly 25% of equipment downtime can be attributed to parts-related issues (identifying the correct part, looking for parts, ordering parts, etc). Much of this wasted time can be eliminated by placing labels on the equipment that clearly identify the correct replacement parts. 34. Predictive maintenance targets It’s essential that the location of your preventative maintenance readings remains consistent. The use of predictive maintenance targets ensures that vibration and ultrasound probes are positioned for maximum repeatability, regardless of who takes the reading.
23. 44 45 37. Point-of-need safe work instructions Hazard warnings and safe work instructions should be posted at the point of need - right where the hazard exists for your employees. 38. Safety and fi re protection equipment visuals Firefi ghting equipment, eye wash stations, fi rst aid stations, safety showers, and other safety equipment should be clearly marked with signage to help employees easily locate them throughout the facility.
24. 46 47 39. Safety and fi re protection equipment fl oor markings Use red and white striped fl oor tape to mark off the areas in front of safety equipment and fi refi ghting equipment that must be kept clear, per OSHA requirements. 40. Hazardous areas or equipment Use a black and yellow striped marking as a border around any area or piece of equipment where employees may be inadvertently exposed to a special hazard. The black and yellow border indicates that special caution should be exercised when entering and working in the area.
26. 50 51 43. Emergency egress markings Your facility should have emergency egress markings to help people safely exit in the event of an emergency. According to IBC/IFC regulations, exits and exit access doors must be marked with approved exit signs. Egress pathways and stairwells should also have glow-in-the-dark markings to facilitate safe exits in dark “lights out” conditions. 42. Wayfi nding Post direction or wayfi nding signs throughout your facility to help people fi nd their way around the building. Mark all of your rooms and offi ces with visual identifi ers, and then post facility diagrams throughout your facility to help people pinpoint where they are.
30. 58 59 49. A4 boards A4s are documents that can assist with problem resolution. They document the root cause analysis and outline the countermeasures that were put in place to correct the problem. It can be very benefi cial to display this type of information to promote visibility and input from a larger group. 48. Kaizen idea boards A kaizen idea board keeps employee suggestions and follow-up actions visible to both managers and employees. In this example, kaizen ideas are written on Post-It notes, placed in the large box on the left, and reviewed by managers at a regular time interval (i.e. every day, every week). They are prioritized using the 4-box block, and up to 3 ideas are acted upon at a time.
2. 2 3 The Pocketbook of Lean Visuals If you’re reading this, you’re probably looking for new ways to make your facility more visual. And you’re smart for doing so! Companies that incorporate lean visuals throughout their facility are proven to have higher productivity, reduced waste, and improved safety. Visuals are also essential to sustaining the success of your lean manufacturing initiatives. They reinforce the standards you put in place, and help your staff and employees detect abnormalities at a glance. In this Pocketbook... We’ll show you 50 tried-and-true ways to effectively use visuals throughout your facility. Use these examples to get started creating your own visuals – and take the fi rst steps to transforming your facility into a visual workplace! Workplace Organization Visuals (5S)
13. 24 25 21. Kanban cards Kanban systems not only control inventory, but also make the reordering process more visual and effi cient. Kanban cards (e.g. tags or magnets) can include product descriptions and ordering information, depending on the need. 20. Batter’s boxes and FIFO lanes Lines and boxes can help sequence work with batter’s boxes and FIFO (fi rst in, fi rst out) lanes. Batter’s box: a storage area next to a machine where the “next-up” product should be stored. FIFO lanes: visuals that mark the staging spots in a lane of work. The number of staging spots also indicates the maximum amount of WIP that can be stored, which helps prevent overproduction.
32. 62 63 Brady Printing Solutions The right printing solution can be essential to creating a visually instructive workplace. Whether it’s a small handheld printer or a versatile benchtop printer, Brady has an easy-to-use visual solution to print signs, labels, tags and more onsite and on demand. Brady printers help create professional-quality visuals that are easy to read and consistent throughout the workplace. For more information: www.BradyID.com/visualworkplace Brady offers a variety of visual workplace products, including: ToughJet ™ Adhesive Sheets: Just print, peel and stick! Create durable, professional-looking signs, charts and more with your inkjet printer. ToughStripe ® Floor Marking Tape: ToughStripe Floor Tape is extremely durable and can withstand forklift traffi c better than other tape-based marking solutions. Toolboards and Workbench Marking Supplies: Durable, self-adhesive vinyl sheets and tapes designed for a variety of non-fl oor applications. For more products: www.BradyID.com/visualworkplace
28. 54 55 46a. Pipe marking While ANSI standards only require that the content and direction of fl ow be shown on pipemarkers, it can be useful to also indicate the source and destination points. This simplifi es and expedites the process of tracing pipes through the facility when you need to shut down a specifi c section or process. 46b. Equipment ID Visual devices should be placed directly onto your equipment to facilitate easy asset care and management. The benefi ts include: Asset tracking Clear direction when reporting problems (enabling maintenance people to readily know which machine to investigate) Better equipment histories (If maintenance and repair tasks are tracked, identifying the equipment ensures that the data is properly assigned.)
12. 22 23 19. Tri-color material pull indicators Tri-color indicators can be used to indicate when stock is beginning to get low. They provide advanced warning to material handlers that restocking will be needed soon. In this example: Green signals a healthy stock Yellow provides a warning that the stock is getting low Red indicates that resupply is needed immediately 18. Minimum level indicators Visuals can also show the point at which stock should be reordered. If the stock falls beneath the green line, employees know that they need to reorder to ensure that replacement stock can be delivered before they run out.
14. 26 27 23. Job scheduling boards with time calculations Displays can be used to visually sequence job orders and indicate work delays or missed deadlines. In this example, the display visually outlines the following information for employees and supervisors: Days that jobs are scheduled to be performed Planned usage Available capacity 22. Kanban labels on bins Do you use a two-bin system to control inventory and re-ordering? Place labels on the outside of the bins to communicate information. In this example, the empty bin is taken back to the central inventory area for replenishment. Parts do not need to be packed into intermediate transport containers or placed into other storage bins for the production line. (No more lost kanban cards!)
29. 56 57 47. LDM boards Format your lean daily management boards to not only track metrics, but to also drive improvement! Consider maintaining 4 charts for each metric that is important to that area: Chart #1: A trend chart comparing actual metrics to goals over time (day, week, month, etc.). Chart #2: A living pareto chart, which includes issues that have been identifi ed and the frequency of their occurrence so problems can be prioritized. Chart #3: A sheet that guides employees through root cause analysis and problem solving. Chart #4: An action plan spreadsheet that outlines existing countermeasures, along with their owners, due dates and statuses. Kaizen Continuous Improvement Visuals
31. 60 61 50. “Kaizen painted” equipment Any time a piece of equipment is kaizened or improved, paint that item a different color. Over time, more and more equipment in your facility will be changed to the new color, dramatically highlighting the impact of the kaizen activity and reminding your team of the progress they’ve made over time. Learn more at: www.BradyID.com/visualworkplace. Visit our website for additional information on visual workplace, 5S workplace organization and other lean manufacturing initiatives. You’ll fi nd a variety of other downloads that can help you with your lean journey, including: Articles Webcasts Handbooks And more!
16. 30 31 26. Procedures If the steps associated with performing a task are challenging to follow, make sure you have detailed procedures available. Procedures should include: What the employee needs to do Order in which it should be done Amount of time it takes to do the task (or how frequently it should be done) Desired outcome 25. Schedules and check sheets Schedules show which employees should be performing certain tasks – and when those tasks should be done. Check sheets can also be used to provide a visual indication that tasks are being completed.
22. 42 43 Safety Visuals 36. Proper formatting of safety visuals Safety visuals should always include: Name of hazard Magnitude of hazard Potential consequences Pictograms Instructions for avoiding hazard Any text should be formatted with sentence caps and left justifi cation for easy legibility.
6. 10 11 7. High traffic storage areas Floor areas that experience heavy traffi c (e.g. dragging skids or pallets) should be marked with corner marks and dashed lines instead of traditional fl oor tape: Less chance that a corner mark or dash will be hit Easier to replace one corner or dash than to replace the whole line! 8. Stocking fi xtures Mark your shelves, fl ow racks, totes, and other stocking fi xtures with industrial labels that are large enough to read at a glance. To help employees locate items faster and reduce mistakes, make sure your visuals include: A brief description The part number or bar code Symbols & pictograms
27. 52 53 44. Production processes and work cells All processes and work cells should be properly identifi ed so everyone can easily understand the content and sequence of the work being performed. Visuals should include: The name of the area or cell What type of work is performed What type of product is produced The next upstream or downstream process (if applicable) 45. Electrical disconnects Every piece of equipment that is electrically-powered should be marked with a label that states the location of the disconnect switches or other energy isolating devices. This helps ensure that the equipment is properly de-energized before servicing, avoiding accidents and possibly even saving lives. AIR COMPRESSOR #1 ACP-1 DISCONNECT: SWITCH 237 SWITCH 237 ACP-1 MAIN DISCONNECT
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